Artists and designers often talk about different emotions that colors elicit, and suggest specific use for them in mobile app and web designs. Interestingly, across cultures different colors can be associated with very distinct emotions. For example, while anger is represented by red in the Western world, it is depicted as black in Hindu culture. Love is yellow to Native Americans and blue to Africans! So, while crafting away at the next project, keep these cultural flavors in mind. David McCandless has created a handy color-culture reference!
I originally published this blog in January 2015. Instead of rewriting the same ideas in new words, I’m reposting the contents of that post and discuss why conducting user research (not market research!) is a smart business strategy.
Why user research?
Mobile app demand is at an all-time high in both the business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-enterprise (B2E) domains as companies strive for an advantage against their competition. While third-party mobile tools are emerging and might seem like a quick and good solution, they are not always the optimal mobile strategy. Such off-the-shelf solutions, even when industry or work-role specific, are developed for no particular combination of users and company. Sometimes such products meet business needs, but often times they do not. Because success of any software project critically depends on user adoption, generic mobile tools can be an unprofitable investment if they fail to support users in the context of their work. Specifically, a mobile solution must optimize operations as performed in a specific company – even a well developed software package that does not fit within the particular ecosystem of a given business will not be used.
This is particularly true of B2B and B2E domains where workers with identical job titles that are employed by two different companies operate in distinct environments using specific tools and follow disparate workflows. In fact, 60% of software development efforts produce substandard or ineffective products in large part due to lack of clear project requirements that address business and user needs. Investing in user research as part of the company’s mobile strategy, on the other hand, can greatly improve user adoption of technology, target specific business objectives, and yield returns beyond the initial investment.
Stakeholders Carry Incomplete or Incorrect Assumptions about Users
Project stakeholders often outline broad business objectives, but not the specific requirements that are truly necessary for the implementation of a mobile solution. For example, should a mobile data-entry form be in a portrait or a landscape view? Should it have an automatic save feature? Do certain fields need to be emphasized over others? Do users need to export the forms or look up old ones? While stakeholders may have answers to some questions pertaining to a particular mobile project, they often carry incomplete or wrong assumptions about the users. Lack of clear requirements for a product and relying on an opinion or an uninformed preference can jeopardize the project.
User Research Determines Specific Product Requirements
User research uncovers and formulates very specific and explicit requirements for a product. Ethnographic research or contextual inquiries yield insights into User Experience (UX) by exposing user needs, tasks and workflows, environment, tools, motivations and attitudes. For instance, UX research on a mobile data-entry form for industrial warehouse inspections might reveal that additional features beyond those originally requested by stakeholders would drive bigger business improvements than the initially defined feature set. Research may reveal that inspections would be more efficient if users could attach photos of equipment and tag them with notes and information about the visited location and pull up historical records of previous inspections. These insights allow for better formulated user personas that not only help in deciding the best solution between using an off-the-shelf package, customizing an existing product, or building a full custom application, but also focus and guide the design, and any development efforts that follow.
User research also significantly informs visual direction of a product by employing the User-Centered Design (UCD) methodology. For example, if users wear gloves and their interaction with the mobile device requires a stylus, the interactions with the interface will differ from what it would have been if the app was created for complex hand gestures. Similarly, the color palette and contrast will be greatly influenced by users’ lighting conditions. A mobile solution developed with UCD methodology improves UX by removing workflow bottlenecks, facilitating tasks, and presenting users with intuitive, user-friendly and aesthetically appealing interfaces. The likelihood of accomplishing this is greatly reduced without user research.
UX and UCD Target Business Objectives
Engaging in UX and UCD processes with industry experts like ChaiOne uncovers very particular product requirements that throw the one-size-fits-all attitude out the window and targets specific business objectives. First, expertise in an industry allows for smooth communication among all parties (e.g., stakeholders, users, researchers, designers, developers, managers, etc.) because everyone shares a common understanding of the terminology, context of the industry, its operations, business motivations, and challenges. Second, the expert possesses collective background knowledge about user needs, experiences, motivations, attitudes, workflows, user pain-points and so on. This allows a better focus in research and targeting of questions to uncover areas for improvement to the specific mobile product that is being implemented, people who will use it, and the business that the mobile app is intended to profit.
UX Yields Significant ROI
In a typical scenario, failure to conduct user research creates the risk of spending scarce time and resources to build a generic tool that fails to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of users or optimize the company’s processes, and therefore yields no sizable return on investment. In the worst case, as software failures in the enterprise illustrate, ignoring UX and UCD can significantly harm an organization by implementing a tool that negatively impacts operations, slows processes, and leaves the company behind its competition or worse.
The seriousness of such consequences is underlined by 93% of executives placing UX as one of the strategic priorities of their businesses. As mobile solutions become integral to business operations, and as the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable technology find their ways into the B2B and B2E space, companies wishing to remain leaders in their industry must persist in developing tools that continue to optimize their business processes. Understanding the value of UX and its benefits for a business is the first sure step toward success.
For a device with a small screen, you must limit the number of features to those that matter the most for the mobile-use case. Even on desktop computers, precious pixels are the world’s most valuable real estate.
These wise words, no-brainers to some, come from Jakob Nielsen and Raluca Budiu’s Mobile Usability book (p. 52). The authors highlight the need to balance available screen space with the amount of information that is presented; too little as well as too much information will create a poor mobile user experience.
How to determine what’s appropriate?
- Conduct user research to determine requirements for design
- Follow design best practices in the mobile user-centered design philosophy
- Conduct heuristic evaluations and usability testing
- Tweak design based on insights from step 3
A heuristic evaluation checklist developed specifically for assessing usability of mobile devices has recently been published by a team from Spain. The authors combined standard software heuristic checklists from leading authorities in the field, and adapted them for evaluating touchscreen devices. The checklist was tested with non-trained engineers who were able to effectively identify usability gaps of a design. The authors argue that “selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist.” See their Supplementary Materials for the entire checklist.
This article presents a case study comparing user behavior on an e-commerce website before and after it was optimized for mobile devices. Improving user experience by optimizing the website for mobile devices lead to, among other things:
- System Usability Scale (SUS) increased from 57 to 73
- Website bounce rate decreased by 50%
- Unique page views increased by 41%
- Particular product sales increased by 31%
- Overall sales increased by over 70%
This article discusses usability do’s and don’ts that are grounded in actual research. Of the 10 tips listed, the highlights are:
- The “Three-click rule” is arbitrary
- F-shaped pattern is best for skimming
- Important content should be on the left of the page
- Instructional and error messages matter
- Search is no substitute for poor navigation
Jakob Nielsen is a pioneer of usability and user experience (UX) discipline. His work on Return on Investment (ROI) of designing with usability principles in mind is invaluable to UX evangelists. One of the classics is Nielsen’s 2008 article demonstrating that a 10% investment yields, on average, 83% in return.
- Data = numbers
- Data is the truth
- Bigger is better
- Designers do not need data
- Data and innovation don’t mix
- There is a right (and a wrong) way to use data in design
The author Pamela Pavliscak argues that quantitative data from A/B studies or analytics are not always sufficient to inform design for a great user experience; she proposes that utilizing insights from qualitative data is as important (if not more!) as relying on quantitative measures.
Users are expert in knowing what they need to accomplish, but not in knowing how software ought to be designed to support their needs. Allowing users to design software through feature requests is the worst form of disaster by committee.
Wise words by Stephen Few from Information Dashboard Design (2nd edition). I substituted ‘users’ instead of ‘customers’ to underscore that to properly design for users, their needs must first be uncovered through various research methods (e.g. contextual inquiry) rather than by asking the user “What do you need?”
This article reviews different methods for assessing desirability of user interface (UI) designs:
- Experience questionnaires
- Quick exposure memory tests
- Measures of physiological indicators
- Microsoft product reaction cards
The author proposes that product reaction cards are a great way to assess UI desirability and presents a case study for utilizing them in a project.